Received: 15 April 2015
Accepted: 13 December 2016
We thank all of our co-workers and collaborators including T. Enami, R. Shibukawa, M. Funayama, M. Kawada, K. Goto, H. Houlden, E. Preza, and C. Okada for their technical support. We acknowledge P. Karagiannis for critical reading of the paper and N. Endo and R. Taniguchi for their administrative support. Funding: This work was funded in part by a grant from the iPS Cell Research Fund (S.Y.); the Program for Intractable Diseases Research utilizing Disease-specific iPS cells from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) (H. Inoue); the Research Center Network for Realization of Regenerative Medicine from AMED (A.H., S.Y., and H. Inoue); Research Project for Practical Applications of Regenerative Medicine from AMED (A.O., T.E., and H. Inoue); Parkinson’s UK Senior Fellowship (F-0902) (T. Kunath); grant-in-aid for scientific research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (15H04270; H. Ito, 15H05581; A.H.); and the Daiichi Sankyo Foundation of Life Science (H. Inoue). Author contributions: H. Inoue conceived the project; K.I. and H. Inoue designed the experiments; K.I., K.T., T.Y., T. Kondo, and S. Kitaoka performed cell culture, molecular experiments, and compound screen; A.W. performed single-cell analysis; K.I. and A. Tanaka performed animal experiments; S. Kaneko, T.A., and H. Ito performed human-sample analysis; N.O., M.H., and H.A. performed resequencing; K.I., A.W., T.Y., D.W., and H. Inoue analyzed the data; K.W., A.H., A.O., T. Kunath., S.W., T.E., T.F., H.N., K.H., H. Ichijo, J-.P.J., and S. Kaneko contributed reagents, materials, and analysis tools; Y.I., M.M., H.T., A. Tamaoka, H.F., K.M., K.O., and R.K. recruited patients; D.W., R.T., and S.Y. provided critical reading and scientific discussions; K.I. and H. Inoue wrote the paper. Competing interests: S.Y. is an unpaid scientific advisor to iPS Academia Japan. Kyoto University has filed patents related to this manuscript: PCT application PCT/JP2014/058142, entitled “Pluripotent stem cells for neuronal differentiation” with K.I. and H. Inoue as coinventors; and PCT application PCT/JP2016/050883, entitled “Agent for preventing and/or treating Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” with K.I. and H. Inoue as coinventors. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.