We thank I. Manfield (University of Leeds) for the technical assistance; J. Henley (University of Bristol), R. Hay and E. Jaffray (University of Dundee) for the reagents; and A. Berndt (University of Leeds) for the advice and critical reading of the manuscript. Funding:
This work was funded, in part, by a Leeds Cancer Research UK Development Fund and the Wellcome Trust (Institutional Strategic Support Fund) (to D.J.H.), the Wellcome Trust (089330), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/K00306/1 and BB/M006557/1) (to A.W.), and the University of Leeds through the Biomedical Health Research Centre support for the Leeds BioScreening Technology Group (to M.J.M. and D.C.T.). Author contributions:
D.J.H., D.C.T., and A.W. conceived the study. D.J.H., M.J.M., D.C.T., and A.W. designed the experiments. D.J.H., C.T., A.A.S.T., N.P., C.H.T., U.M., K.Z.Z., G.H., J.D., E.F., and D.C.T. conducted the experiments. D.J.H., C.T., A.A.S.T., C.H.T., T.G., T.A.E., J.D., E.F., D.C.T., and A.W. analyzed the data. D.J.H., D.C.T., and A.W. wrote the paper with input from all the authors. Competing interests:
The Affimer technology is under a patent application filed by the University of Leeds and are commercialized through a licensing agreement by Avacta Life Sciences. The University of Leeds receives royalties on sales of reagents through Avacta Life Sciences, which are distributed according to university policy. Data and materials availability:
Structures deposited in PDB (www.pdb.org
) are referred to as Adhirons and have been assigned the following identification numbers: 5ELJ (SUMO-1:S1S2D5*), 5EQL (SUMO-2:S1S2D5*), and 5ELU (SUMO-2:S2B3). *S1S2D5 is referred to as S2D5 in the PDB. Material is available upon request.