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NEUTRON STARS

Polarized x-rays from a magnetar

Roberto Taverna https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1768-618X [email protected], Roberto Turolla, Fabio Muleri https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3331-3794, Jeremy Heyl https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9739-367X, Silvia Zane https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5326-880X, Luca Baldini https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9785-7726, Denis González-Caniulef https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5848-0180, Matteo Bachetti https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4576-9337, John Rankin https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9774-0560, Ilaria Caiazzo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4770-5388, Niccolò Di Lalla https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7574-1298, Victor Doroshenko https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8162-1105, Manel Errando https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1853-863X, Ephraim Gau https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5250-2710, Demet Kırmızıbayrak https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2675-740X, Henric Krawczynski https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1084-6507, Michela Negro https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6548-5622, Mason Ng https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0940-6563, Nicola Omodei https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5448-7577, Andrea Possenti https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5902-3731, Toru Tamagawa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8801-6263, Keisuke Uchiyama https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7752-9389, Martin C. Weisskopf https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5270-4240, Ivan Agudo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3777-6182, Lucio A. Antonelli, Wayne H. Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stefano Bianchi https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4622-4240, Stephen D. Bongiorno https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0901-2097, Raffaella Bonino https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4264-1215, Alessandro Brez, Niccolò Bucciantini, Fiamma Capitanio https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6384-3027, Simone Castellano https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1111-4292, Elisabetta Cavazzuti https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7150-9638, Stefano Ciprini https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0712-2479, Enrico Costa, Alessandra De Rosa, Ettore Del Monte https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3013-6334, Laura Di Gesu https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5614-5028, Alessandro Di Marco https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0331-3259, Immacolata Donnarumma, Michal Dovčiak https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0079-1239, Steven R. Ehlert https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4420-2838, Teruaki Enoto https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1244-3100, Yuri Evangelista https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6096-6710, Sergio Fabiani, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Javier A. Garcia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3828-2448, Shuichi Gunji https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5881-2445, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Wataru Iwakiri, Svetlana G. Jorstad https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6158-1708, Vladimir Karas, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0110-6136, Fabio La Monaca https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8916-4156, Luca Latronico https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0984-1856, Ioannis Liodakis https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9200-4006, Simone Maldera https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0698-4421, Alberto Manfreda https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0998-4953, Frédéric Marin https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2049-2690, Andrea Marinucci https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2055-4946, Alan P. Marscher https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7396-3332, Herman L. Marshall, Giorgio Matt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2152-0916, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Tsunefumi Mizuno https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7263-0296, Stephen C.-Y. Ng https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5847-2612, Stephen L. O’Dell https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1868-8056, Chiara Oppedisano https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6194-4601, Alessandro Papitto https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6289-7413, George G. Pavlov, Abel L. Peirson https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6292-1911, Matteo Perri https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3613-4409, Melissa Pesce-Rollins https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1790-8018, Maura Pilia, Juri Poutanen https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0983-0049, Simonetta Puccetti, Brian D. Ramsey, Ajay Ratheesh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0411-4243, Roger W. Romani, Carmelo Sgrò https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5676-6214, Patrick Slane, Paolo Soffitta https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7781-4104, Gloria Spandre https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0802-3453, Fabrizio Tavecchio https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0256-0995, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn F. Tennant https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9443-6774, Nicholas E. Thomas, Francesco Tombesi https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6562-8654, Alessio Trois, Sergey S. Tsygankov https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9679-0793, Jacco Vink, Kinwah Wu, and Fei Xie https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0105-5826Authors Info & Affiliations
Science
3 Nov 2022
Vol 378, Issue 6620
pp. 646-650

Polarization constrains magnetar emission

Magnetars are young neutron stars with high magnetic fields that are usually observed at x-ray wavelengths. The emission mechanism and geometry of the emitting region have been unclear. Taverna et al. measured the x-ray polarization of the magnetar 4U 0142+61. The polarization degree and angle change as a function of x-ray energy, indicating two different emission regions. The authors preferred a model in which most of the x-rays are emitted by an equatorial band on the surface of the neutron star, with some of the photons then being scattered to higher energies by collisions with electrons in the surrounding magnetic field. —KTS

Abstract

Magnetars are neutron stars with ultrastrong magnetic fields, which can be observed in x-rays. Polarization measurements could provide information on their magnetic fields and surface properties. We observed polarized x-rays from the magnetar 4U 0142+61 using the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer and found a linear polarization degree of 13.5 ± 0.8% averaged over the 2– to 8–kilo–electron volt band. The polarization changes with energy: The degree is 15.0 ± 1.0% at 2 to 4 kilo–electron volts, drops below the instrumental sensitivity ~4 to 5 kilo–electron volts, and rises to 35.2 ± 7.1% at 5.5 to 8 kilo–electron volts. The polarization angle also changes by 90° at ~4 to 5 kilo–electron volts. These results are consistent with a model in which thermal radiation from the magnetar surface is reprocessed by scattering off charged particles in the magnetosphere.

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Materials and Methods
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References and Notes

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Published In

Science
Volume 378 | Issue 6620
11 November 2022

Submission history

Received: 16 May 2022
Accepted: 18 October 2022
Published in print: 11 November 2022

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Acknowledgments

We thank three anonymous referees for helpful and constructive comments that improved the paper. This paper is based on observations made by the IXPE, a joint US and Italian mission. The US contribution to the IXPE mission is supported by NASA and led and managed by the MSFC with industry partner Ball Aerospace (contract NNM15AA18C). The Italian contribution is supported by ASI through contract ASI-OHBI-2017-12-I.0, agreements ASI-INAF-2017-12-H0 and ASI-INFN-2017.13-H0 and the SSDC with agreements ASI-INAF-2022-14-HH.0 and ASI-INFN 2021-43-HH.0, and by INAF and INFN. Data products were provided by the IXPE Team (MSFC, SSDC, INAF, and INFN) and distributed with additional software tools by the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) at NASA GSFC.
Funding: R.Ta. and R.Tu. acknowledge financial support from the Italian MUR through grant PRIN 2017LJ39LM. J.H., D.G.-C., I.C., and D.K. acknowledge the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), funding reference number 5007110, and the Canadian Space Agency. D.G.-C. is a Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysical (CITA) National Fellow (grant no. CITA 490888-16). E.G. and H.K. acknowledge NASA support under grants 80NSSC18K0264, 80NSSC22K1291, 80NSSC21K1817, and NNX16AC24G. M.Ne. acknowledges support from NASA under award 80GSFC21M0002. T.T. was supported by grant JSPS KAKENHI JP19H05609. F.Mu., J.R., S.B., E.Co., E.D.M., A.D.M., Y.E., S.F., R.F., F.L.M., G.M., M.Pe., A.R., P.So., and A.T. were supported by ASI and INAF under grants ASI-INAF-2017-12-H0 and ASI-INAF-2022-14-HH.0. L.B., L.L., R.Be., R.Bo., A.B., S.Ca., S.M., A.Mar., C.O., M.P.-R., C.S., and G.S. were supported by ASI and INFN under grants ASI-INFN-2017.13-H0 and ASI-INFN-2021-43-HH.0.
Author contributions: R.Ta., R.Tu., F.Mu., J.H., S.Z., L.B., J.R., and M.C.W. planned the observing campaign. R.Ta., R.Tu., F.Mu., J.H., S.Z., L.B., J.R., D.G.-C., M.B., I.C., N.D.L., E.G., D.K., H.K., M.Ne., M. Ng, N.O., A.Po., T.T., and K.U. analyzed the data. R.Ta., R.Tu., F.Mu., J.H., S.Z., L.B., J.R., D.G.-C., M.B., I.C., A.Po., T.T., and K.U. modeled the data. R.Ta., R.Tu., F.Mu., J.H., S.Z., L.B., J.R., D.G.-C., M.B., and A.Po. wrote the manuscript. V.D. and M.E. served as internal reviewers. All the other authors contributed to the design and science case of the IXPE mission and to the planning of the observations in this paper. All authors provided input and comments on the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors declare there are no competing interests.
Data and materials availability: The IXPE observation of 4U 0142+61 is available in the HEASARC IXPE Data Archive https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ixpe/archive/ under ObsID 01003299. The IXPE software is available at https://github.com/lucabaldini/ixpeobssim and documented at https://ixpeobssim.readthedocs.io. Our measured polarizations are listed in table S2, and the results of our model fitting are listed in tables S1 and S3. The code used for the equatorial belt simulation is available at https://github.com/robertotaverna/magMC and archived on Zenodo (31).
License information: Copyright © 2022 the authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original US government works. https://www.science.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

Authors

Affiliations

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Roberto Turolla
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary Dorking RH5 6NT, UK.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project administration, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary Dorking RH5 6NT, UK.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Dipartimento di Fisica Enrico Fermi, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Validation, and Writing - review & editing.
Denis González-Caniulef https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5848-0180
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Software, Validation, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, INAF, I-09047 Selargius, Italy.
Roles: Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Software, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - original draft.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Software, Validation, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Theoretical AstroPhysics Including Relativity and Cosmology, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
Roles: Methodology, Validation, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Deparment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Software, Validation, and Writing - review & editing.
Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Software, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing.
Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
Roles: Software and Writing - review & editing.
Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Validation, and Writing - review & editing.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
Roles: Formal analysis, Software, Validation, and Writing - review & editing.
Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, and Writing - review & editing.
Center for Space Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Software, and Validation.
Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Software, and Validation.
Deparment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Roles: Formal analysis, Methodology, Resources, Software, Supervision, and Validation.
Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, INAF, I-09047 Selargius, Italy.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan.
Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan.
Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing.
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, 18008 Granada, Spain.
Lucio A. Antonelli
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, INAF, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
Space Science Data Center (SSDC), Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), 00133 Roma, Italy.
Wayne H. Baumgartner
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Ronaldo Bellazzini
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 00146 Roma, Italy.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.
Alessandro Brez
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Niccolò Bucciantini
Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Space Science Data Center (SSDC), Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), 00133 Roma, Italy.
INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Enrico Costa
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Alessandra De Rosa
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Immacolata Donnarumma
ASI, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 14100 Praha 4, Czech Republic.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Sergio Fabiani
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Riccardo Ferrazzoli
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi 990-8560, Japan.
Kiyoshi Hayashida
Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Deceased.
Wataru Iwakiri
Department of Physics, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan.
Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Laboratory of Observational Astrophysics, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.
Vladimir Karas
Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 14100 Praha 4, Czech Republic.
Takao Kitaguchi
RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0110-6136
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.
Finnish Centre for Astronomy with the European Southern Observatory, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Herman L. Marshall
Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 00146 Roma, Italy.
Ikuyuki Mitsuishi
Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan.
Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, INAF, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
George G. Pavlov
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801, USA.
Deparment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, INAF, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
Space Science Data Center (SSDC), Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), 00133 Roma, Italy.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Maura Pilia
Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, INAF, I-09047 Selargius, Italy.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia.
Simonetta Puccetti
Space Science Data Center (SSDC), Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), 00133 Roma, Italy.
Brian D. Ramsey
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Roger W. Romani
Deparment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Patrick Slane
Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), I-00133 Roma, Italy.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, INAF, 23807 Merate, Italy.
Yuzuru Tawara
Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Nicholas E. Thomas
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL 35812, USA.
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Alessio Trois
Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, INAF, I-09047 Selargius, Italy.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia.
Jacco Vink
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Kinwah Wu
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary Dorking RH5 6NT, UK.
Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Funding Information

Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica: ASI-INAF-2022-14-HH.0

Notes

*
Corresponding author. Email: [email protected]

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