Received: 13 November 2020
Accepted: 26 October 2021
Published in print: 17 December 2021
Funding: This work was funded by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, US Department of Energy, under contract no. DE-AC02-05-CH11231 (EMAT program KC1201). Work at the Molecular Foundry was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. J.W. acknowledges support from a Bakar Prize. R.L. acknowledges support from the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, of the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. J.Y. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant no. 1555336. M.P.G. gratefully acknowledges the National Science Foundation for fellowship support under the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program.
Author contributions: K.T., K.D. J.L., and J.W. conceived the general idea. K.T. and K.D. designed the device. K.T. fabricated the device. K.T., M.P.G., H.K., Q.W., A.J., J.J.U., and J.Y. contributed to the spectral characterizations. K.T., K.D., J.L. Y.R., and C.P.G. contributed to the solar simulator characterizations. K.T., J.L., and C.-Y.L. performed the vacuum chamber characterizations. K.T., K.D., J.L., and J.W. performed the field experiments. K.D., J.L. and J.Y. performed the numerical electromagnetic simulations. K.T., F.G.R., and R.L. performed all other simulations. All authors discussed and analyzed the results. K.T., K.D., J.L., and J.W. wrote the manuscript with assistance from other authors. All authors reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Competing interests: R.L. is an unpaid, nonvoting member of the board of directors of the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) and a paid consultant to the CRRC. K.T., K.D., J.L., and J.W. are inventors of a provisional patent application related to this work. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Data and materials availability: All data required to evaluate the conclusions in the manuscript are available in the main text or the supplementary materials.