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Abstract

Drosophila exhibits a circadian rest-activity cycle, but it is not known whether fly rest constitutes sleep or is mere inactivity. It is shown here that, like mammalian sleep, rest inDrosophila is characterized by an increased arousal threshold and is homeostatically regulated independently of the circadian clock. As in mammals, rest is abundant in young flies, is reduced in older flies, and is modulated by stimulants and hypnotics. Several molecular markers modulated by sleep and waking in mammals are modulated by rest and activity in Drosophila, including cytochrome oxidase C, the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein BiP, and enzymes implicated in the catabolism of monoamines. Flies lacking one such enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, show increased rest after rest deprivation. These results implicate the catabolism of monoamines in the regulation of sleep and waking in the fly and suggest that Drosophila may serve as a model system for the genetic dissection of sleep.

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The behavioral state was determined individually for each fly; only flies that satisfied specific criteria were selected for analysis. A fly was considered awake if it was active for at least 90% of the 3-hour light period and 100% of the hour before killing. A fly was resting if it was inactive for at least 66% of the 3-hour dark period and 100% of the hour before killing. Only about 60 to 70% of the flies examined satisfied these criteria. Failure to specifically identify rest and waking results in samples containing a mixture of behavioral states.
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We thank D. F. Robinson, G. A. Davis, M. J. Gallina, J. M. Salbaum, J. Snook, N. Almassy, and E. Balaban for his conception of the ultrasound system. The Neurosciences Institute is supported by the Neurosciences Research Foundation and receives major support for this program from Novartis. C.C. was a Joseph Drown Foundation Fellow.

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Published In

Science
Volume 287 | Issue 5459
10 March 2000

Submission history

Received: 15 November 1999
Accepted: 8 February 2000
Published in print: 10 March 2000

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Authors

Affiliations

Paul J. Shaw
The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
Chiara Cirelli
The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
Ralph J. Greenspan
The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
Giulio Tononi*
The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Notes

*
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]

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