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Abstract

Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, >0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ~150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts.
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Supplementary Material

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Table S1
Appendix S1

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Science
Volume 348Issue 623722 May 2015

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Received: 23 September 2014
Accepted: 27 February 2015

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Colomban de Vargas*, [email protected]
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Stéphane Audic
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Nicolas Henry
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Johan Decelle
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Frédéric Mahé
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Ramiro Logares
Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science (ICM)–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona E08003, Spain.
Enrique Lara
Laboratory of Soil Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Cédric Berney
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Noan Le Bescot
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Ian Probert
CNRS, FR2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, FR 2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Margaux Carmichael
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Julie Poulain
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
Sarah Romac
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sébastien Colin
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Jean-Marc Aury
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
Lucie Bittner
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
CNRS FR3631, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France.
Samuel Chaffron
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Micah Dunthorn
Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Stefan Engelen
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
Olga Flegontova
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Lionel Guidi
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Aleš Horák
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Olivier Jaillon
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Université d’Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Gipsi Lima-Mendez
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Julius Lukeš
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada.
Shruti Malviya
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Raphael Morard
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Matthieu Mulot
Laboratory of Soil Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Eleonora Scalco
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.
Raffaele Siano
Ifremer, Centre de Brest, DYNECO/Pelagos CS 10070, 29280 Plouzané, France.
Flora Vincent
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Adriana Zingone
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.
Céline Dimier
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Marc Picheral
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sarah Searson
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Stefanie Kandels-Lewis
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
Directors’ Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
Tara Oceans Coordinators
Silvia G. Acinas
Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science (ICM)–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona E08003, Spain.
Peer Bork
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
Max-Delbrück-Centre for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany.
Chris Bowler
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Gabriel Gorsky
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Nigel Grimsley
CNRS UMR 7232, Biologie Intégrative des Organismes Marins (BIOM), Avenue du Fontaulé, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités Paris 06, Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls (OOB) UPMC, Avenue du Fontaulé, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.
Pascal Hingamp
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS IGS UMR 7256, 13288 Marseille, France.
Daniele Iudicone
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.
Fabrice Not
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Hiroyuki Ogata
Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.
Stephane Pesant
MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
Jeroen Raes
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Michael E. Sieracki
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME 04544, USA.
National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, USA.
Sabrina Speich
Department of Geosciences, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD), Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO)–Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM), Place Copernic, 29820 Plouzané, France.
Lars Stemmann
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
Shinichi Sunagawa
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
Jean Weissenbach
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Université d’Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Patrick Wincker* [email protected]
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Université d’Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
Eric Karsenti* [email protected]
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l’ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
Directors’ Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

Notes

*Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] (C.d.V.); [email protected] (P.W.); [email protected] (E.K.)
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Tara Oceans Coordinators and affiliations appear at the end of this paper.

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Science
Volume 348|Issue 6237
22 May 2015
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Received:23 September 2014
Accepted:27 February 2015
Published in print:22 May 2015
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