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Abstract

The amygdala was more responsive to fearful (larger) eye whites than to happy (smaller) eye whites presented in a masking paradigm that mitigated subjects' awareness of their presence and aberrant nature. These data demonstrate that the amygdala is responsive to elements of biologically relevant configural stimuli.

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References and Notes

1
P. J. Whalen et al., J. Neurosci.18, 411 (1998).
2
J. E. LeDoux, The Emotional Brain (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996).
3
R. Adolphs et al., Nature, in press.
4
J. S. Morris, M. deBonis, R. J. Dolan, Neuroimage17, 214 (2002).
5
A. Sekuler, C. M. Gaspar, J. M. Gold, P. J. Bennet, Curr. Biol.14, 391 (2004).
6
P. J. Whalen, Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci.7, 177 (1998).
7
H. Kim et al., Neuroreport14, 2317 (2003).
8
H. Kim et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci., in press.
9
P. Ekman, V. Friesen, Pictures of Facial Affect (Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1976).
10
We studied healthy, right-handed, male subjects (mean age 21.9 ± 1.34 years) for consistency with our previous study (1) and to minimize between-subject signal heterogeneity related to handedness and/or gender differences. We scanned 27 subjects and excluded data from seven for excessive movement (>1.5 mm, 4 subjects), brain or visual abnormalities (2 subjects), or post-scan Beck Depression Inventory scores > 10 (1 subject).
11
Materials and methods are available as supporting material on Science Online.
12
We used an imaging protocol focused on the amygdala (7) that provides excellent coverage even in ventral and medial regions. The mean signal-to-noise ratio after spatial filtering (full width at half maximum, 6 mm) at the ventral amygdala locus reported here was more than 100 to 1.
13
P. Vuilleumier, J. L. Armony, J. Driver, R. J. Dolan, Nature Neurosci.6, 624 (2003).
14
We thank N. Kalin, R. Davidson, A. Alexander, R. Cai, H. Urry, and L. Shin. Supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (grant nos. 01866 and 069315) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Science
Volume 306 | Issue 5704
17 December 2004

Submission history

Received: 3 August 2004
Accepted: 28 October 2004
Published in print: 17 December 2004

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Authors

Affiliations

Paul J. Whalen*
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Jerome Kagan
Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Robert G. Cook
Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
F. Caroline Davis
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Hackjin Kim
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Sara Polis
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Donald G. McLaren
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Leah H. Somerville
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.
Ashly A. McLean
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Jeffrey S. Maxwell
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Tom Johnstone
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and The Waisman Center, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Notes

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]

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