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Abstract

PolyADP-ribose-polymerase 1 is activated in neurons that mediate several forms of long-term memory in Aplysia. Because polyADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins is a response to DNA damage in virtually all eukaryotic cells, it is surprising that activation of the polymerase occurs during learning and is required for long-term memory. We suggest that fast and transient decondensation of chromatin structure by polyADP-ribosylation enables the transcription needed to form long-term memory without strand breaks in DNA.

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Supported by a Human Frontier Science Program short-term traveling fellowship to M. Cohen-Armon in the laboratory of J. H. Schwartz, by NIH grants MH48850 and NS29832 to J.H.S., by Israel Science Foundation grants (48/00 to M.C.-A. and 357/02 to A.J.S), Israeli National Institute for Psychobiology and Adams Super-Center for Brain Research (M.C.-A.), and a grant from the Israel Ministry of Health (M.C.-A.). Aplysia were provided by the National Center for Research Resources at the University of Miami under NIH grant RR10294.

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Science
Volume 304 | Issue 5678
18 June 2004

Submission history

Received: 13 February 2004
Accepted: 4 May 2004
Published in print: 18 June 2004

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Notes

Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
References

Authors

Affiliations

Malka Cohen-Armon*
The Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.
Leonid Visochek
The Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.
Ayelet Katzoff
Faculty of Life Sciences, Gonda [Goldschmied] Medical Diagnostic Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.
David Levitan
The Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.
Faculty of Life Sciences, Gonda [Goldschmied] Medical Diagnostic Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.
Abraham J. Susswein
Faculty of Life Sciences, Gonda [Goldschmied] Medical Diagnostic Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.
Rodika Klein
The Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.
Mireille Valbrun
Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
James H. Schwartz*
Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Notes

*
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] (M.C.A.); [email protected] (J.H.S.)

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